The B = 1 Skyrmion's vibrational modes

The low-lying non-zero modes

Each mode's symmetry is denoted as dI, it has a degeneracy d, and transforms as an irrep I of the Skyrmion's symmetry group. We use the notation of Cotton. Character tables may be found here.

Freq. Symmetry Description/Notes Visualization
1.20 10+
The breathing mode


Hover over an image (or if you're on a tablet/phone: tap on an image) to make it come to life. The hover-over text tells you the Cartesian realization of the element of the irrep you are looking at.